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零基础入门英语之零基础英语语法入门

零基础入门英语首先要面对的一大敌人就是英语语法,英语语法入门是关键,语法是英语听力、阅读、写作及对话的重要基础,这里小编从构成句子的各个成分入手,为大家讲解一下如何跨过零基础英语语法入门这道坎。

零基础入门英语之零基础英语语法入门

零基础入门英语之零基础英语语法入门

首先来认识一下英语句子的结构,构成句子的各个部分叫做句子成分。英语句子主要成分有主语、谓语、表语、宾语、状语、补足语和定语。

零基础英语语法入门一:主语

主语是一个句子的主体,是句子所要说明的人或事情,表示句子描述的是“谁”“什么”。主语一般位于陈述句句首,但在there be结构中主语位于谓语后面。

能作主语的有名词类(含代词、数词);非谓语(含不定式、ing 分词)、从句。

1)名词类

Professor Smith is a famous scientist.史密斯教授是著名的科学家。

We often speak English in class.我们经常在课堂上说英语。

One-third of the students in this class are girls.这个班1/3的学生是女生。

2) 非谓语

To master a foreign language is necessary.掌握一门外语是必要的。

Smoking does harm to the health.吸烟有害健康。

3)从句

When we are going to have an English test has not been decided yet.

我们什么时候进行英语测验还没有决定。

Whether he’ll join us in the discussion is of great importance.

他是否参加我们的讨论是很重要的。

零基础英语语法入门二:谓语

谓语说明主语所做的动作或具有的特征和状态。只有动词在句中才能作谓语,一般放在主语之后。

1)简单谓语

由一个动词或动词短语构成。如:

He practices running every morning.他每天早晨练习跑步。

Yesterday afternoon he reached China.昨天下午他到达桂林。

2)复合谓语

(1)由情态动词或其他助动词加动词原形构成

You may keep the book for two weeks.这本书你可以借两周。

You’d better not take the magazine out of the reading-room.

你最好不要把这本杂志拿出阅览室。

He has caught a bad cold.He has to go to see a doctor.

他患了重感冒,必须去看医生。

零基础英语语法入门三:表语

表语用来说明主语的身份、特征和状态,它一般位于系动词(如be,become,get,look,grow,turn,seem等)之后。

能作表语的有名词类(含代词、数词);形容词;非谓语动词(含分词、不定式、动名词;介词短语、副词及从句。

1)名词

He is an astronaut.他是一位宇航员。

2)形容词

The weather has turned cold.天气变冷了。

3) 非谓语动词

My job is to teach English. 我的工作是教英语。

The speech is exciting.这演讲激动人心。

His hobby is playing football.他的爱好是踢足球。

The teacher was pleased with my spoken English.老师对我的英语口语很满意。

4)介词短语

The machine must be out of order.这机器一定出毛病了。

He is against our plan.他反对我们的计划。

5)副词

Time is up.The class is over.时间到了,下课。

My father isn’t in.He is out.我父亲不在家,他出去了。

6)从句

The truth is that he has never been abroad.实际情况是他从未出过国。

What I want to know is when we’ll have the sports meet.

我想知道的是我们什么时候开运动会。

零基础英语语法入门四:宾语

宾语表示及物动作的对象或承受者,用于回答谓语“谁”和“什么”,一般位于及物动词后面。但英语介词后也要求用宾语。

可充当宾语的内容和主语一样。

1)名词类

They went to see an exhibition yesterday.他们昨天去看了展览。

We should learn from him.我们应该向他学习。

2)非谓语类(不定式、ing 分词)

He pretended not to see me.他假装没有看见我。

She didn’t know what to do next.她不知道下一步做什么。

I enjoy listening to popular music.我喜欢听流行音乐。

3)从句

I think(that)he is fit for his office.我认为他称职。

He asked me whose pronunciation was the best in the class.

他问我班上谁的发音最好。

零基础英语语法入门五:补语

补语用于补充说明主语或宾语。补语通常由形容词、名词或其他相当的结构担任。补语可分为宾语补足语和主语补足语。

1)宾语补足语:

The government appointed her chief delegate to the conference.

政府任命她为出席那个会议的代表团团长。(名词)

He doesn’t believe the story true.

他不相信这故事是真的。 (形容词)

The doctor advised her to stay in bed for a week.

医生建议她卧床休息一周。 (不定式)

They saw her walking into the bookstore.

他们看见她进书店了。 (分词短语)

The children saw the kite up and up.

孩子们看到风筝越飞越高。 (副词)

You should put your books in order.

你应该把书摆整齐。 (介词短语)

2)主语补足语:含宾语补足语的句子改成被动语态时,原宾语和宾语补足语便分别成为主语和主语补足语。

We found him working in the office.(在此主动句子中working是宾补)

我们发现他正在办公室工作。

He was found working in the office.(在此被动句子中working是主补)

他被发现在办公室工作。

零基础英语语法入门六:定语

用来修饰、说明、限定名词或代词的词、短语或从句称为定语。

可充当定语的有形容词;非谓语类(含不定式,ing 分词和ed 分词);名词类(含代词、数词、名词所有格);介词短语、副词和从句。

单个词作定语通常位于所修饰的词之前,但短语、从句作定语时通常位于所修饰的词之后。

1)形容词

Guilin is a beautiful city.桂林是一座美丽的城市。

A bright future shines before us.光明的未来展现在我们眼前。

2) 非谓语类

The building to be built next year will be our school.

明年要建的那幢楼将是我们的学校。

China is a developing country;America is a developed country.

中国是一个发展中国家,美国是一个发达国家。

3)名词类

There are thirty women teachers in our schoo1.我们学校有30名女教师。

More than thirty students in our class have read the book.

我们班三十多个学生读过这本书。

Mary’s parents have gone abroad.玛丽的父母出国了。

4) 介词短语

He is reading an article about how to learn English.

他正在读一篇有关如何学习英语的文章。

Who is the girl in red? 穿红衣服的那个姑娘是谁?

5)副词(多位于被修饰词之后)

A noise outside made him turn around.外面的喧闹声使他转过身来。

The man in the room below is friendly.楼下房间的那人很友好。

6)从句

There is nothing that worries him.没有什么事使他烦恼。

I will remember the day when I first met her.

我将记住第一次遇见她的那一天。

零基础英语语法入门七:状语

修饰动词、形容词、副词或整个句子,说明动作或状态特征的句子成分,叫做状语。

可充当状语的主要有副词、介词短语、非谓语类和从句。

1)副词

Light travels most quickly.光传播得最快。

Factories and buildings are seen here and there.

到处都能见到工厂和建筑物。

2)介词短语

He has lived in the city for ten years.他在那座城市住了10年了。

In spite of the difficulties,we went on with our work.

尽管有困难,但是我们仍继续工作。

3)非谓语类

The box is too heavy for me to lift.这个箱子太重,我抬不起。

He is in the room making a model plane.他在房间里做一架飞机模型。

Not knowing what to do,he decided to ask the teacher for advice.

他不知道怎么办好,就去问老师。

Encouraged by the teacher,I made up my mind to learn English well.

在老师的鼓励下,我决心把英语学好。

4)从句

Once you begin,you must continue.一旦开始,你就得继续下去。

I must work harder in order that I may catch up with the others.

为了赶上其他人,我必须更努力学习。

零基础英语语法入门八:状语的种类

1)时间状语

How about meeting again at six? 6:00再见面怎样?

2)原因状语

Last night she didn’t go to the dance party because of the rain.

由于下雨,她昨晚没有去参加舞会。

3)条件状语

I shall go there if it doesn’t rain.如果不下雨,我将到那里去。

As(So)long as you work hard,you can make rapid progress in English.

只要你努力,你就可以在英语方面取得很快的进步。

4)地点状语

Mr. Smith lives on the third floor.史密斯先生住在3楼。

Where there is water,there is life.有水的地方,就有生命。

5)方式状语

She put the eggs into the basket with great care.

她小心地把鸡蛋放在篮子里。

He has greatly improved his spoken English by this means.

他用这种方式极大地改善了他的英语口语。

6)伴随状语

She came in with a dictionary in her hand.她进来时手里拿着一本字典。

The teacher came in, followed by a group of students.

老师走了进来,后面跟着一群学生。

7)目的状语

In order to catch up with the others,I must work harder.

为了赶上其他人,我必须更努力学习。

I went there to see a friend of mine.我去那里看我的一个朋友。

8)结果状语

He was so tired that he fell asleep immediately.他累极了,立刻就睡着了。

We arrived there only to find an empty room.

我们到了那儿只发现了一个空房间。

9)让步状语

She works very hard though she is old.

虽然她年纪大了,但她仍然十分努力工作。

No matter when you come,you are warmly welcomed.

不管你什么时候来,都欢迎。

10)程度状语

They were greatly moved to hear the hero’s story.

听了英语的故事,他们深受感动。

I quite agree with you.我完全同意你的意见。

11)比较状语

I am taller than he is.我比他高。

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